Abstract
A multi-user geo-based information system was implemented as a surveying, geotechnical, biological, cadastral and pipeline design data repository for the Alaska Highway Gas Pipeline Project. Location reference software was designed as a general-purpose, high precision, global coverage system, and integrated with a commercial pseudorelational database package. Locations were described by a set of ellipsoid related planar cells, and their internal coordinates, derived by a pseudo-stereographic ellipsoid to plane projection. Input and output location data can be given or generated in any commonly used plane surveying coordinate system. Retrieval is based on the KP range, alignment sheet, proximity to other items or any area polygon. Database resolution surpasses the accuracy of the reference line field survey. Processing and storage utilization are highly efficient, an important consideration on a large mainframe computer complex.
A significant amount of work has been done in recent years in the area of the design and implementation of geo-based computerised systems combining high data volumes and large area coverage. While all such systems share many similarities, an important distinction can be made based on the spatial analysis usually performed on the data. If only the general distribution and correlation of different entities is of interest, as often is the case in e.g. computerised natural resource inventories, the positional precision requirements are relatively low. Such systems are therefore usually based on a large coverage plane projection (e.g. UTM), sometimes using a small rectangular grid cell identifier as the only location descriptor. All spatial analysis is carried out by completely (but safely) ignoring the fact that plane coordinate relationships are at best only approximations of the actual location geometry.
On the other hand, systems in e.g. cadastral, control network inventory, large civil engineering and defence applications require the ability to derive geometric relationships from location descriptions on the database with the same level of precision as that normally obtained by field measurement techniques and instruments employed by those disciplines. If the area coverage is continental or even global, differences in plane and true spatial geometry can no longer be ignored. At this point several options are available:
Implement the database using large coverage plane projection coordinates, and selectively calculate and apply corrections to the derived geometric data.
Implement the database using only the ellipsoid coordinates, and derive directly all geometric data required. No corrections will be necessary, but the geometry processing, data volume and indexing scheme might require more computer resources than available or justifiable for a given application.
Implement the database with a combination of ellipsoid and plane location descriptors, so that different tasks are performed using different mechanisms, with the goal of overall optimization in the usage of computer resources in data storage, searching and geometronical processing.
It is interesting to note that the first of these options describes quite well the approach used for location description and processing in manual (pre-computer) geo-based systems. The trade-off between the coverage and precision in most such systems (UTM 1958 is a good example) is resolved by adopting (by current standards) extremely high discrepancy tolerance. In consequence, corrections have to be calculated and applied much more often than anticipated when the projection was developed and the system implemented. Regardless of which of the above options are taken, some data partitioning and indexing will be required to make location based retrievals fast and efficient. How this is best done depends to a large degree on the type of user interface functions, volume, distribution and composition of the data, as well as on the performance characteristics of the computing hardware and software devices available.
Throughout this paper, the term "location reference system" is used to identify a set of data items and software components which make possible location based retrieval of information, and support required geometronical processing.
The major functional requiremets which affected the design of this location reference system were:
The application system will be implemented on a mainframe computer, using as much as possible already available communication network and database software. Effective integration in the database package must be possible.
Location data retrieval will be based on: pipeline section; alignment sheet; proximity to reference line or other data items; or any other conveniently defined area polygon. Location elements should be stored with at least the same precision as that of the combined field traversing measurements and adjustment.
Since an on-line database access is required, data storage volume and access cost should be minimized. Optimization should be biased towards the retrieval rather than the initial load of data.
UTM coordinates will be given as location description for field surveyed items, and must be generated for some output reports and medium scale plotting. It should be possible to expand this requirement with other commonly used plane survey coordinate systems.
Reference line distance accumulation (Kilometer-posts, KP) can be defined either along the centre-line or the R-O-W boundary line, slope or horizontal. KP/offset system should be kept as a simple, low precision way to reference data. In particular, KP values produced by a series of pipeline traverses and marked in the field should be recognized by the system.
Programming of the location reference system routines must be kept as simple as possible in order to meet the pipeline design database implementation schedule.
The system is based on a hierarchical set of location descriptors: cell identifiers, ellipsoid coordinates, pseudo -stereographic ellipsoid to plane projection, common plane survey mapping system, and KP/offset pipeline references. Different sets of location elements are by definition only different numerical representations of one positional geometry, and can be dynamically transformed from one format into another. Redundant location elements are checked for consistency upon entry to the system, and then discarded, to be re-constituted when required. The system uses spatial, ellipsoid related set of the data partitioning cells. Each cell record contains a list of its neighbours. Two substantially different cell arrangement schemes are possible:
System assigned (and dynamically re-assigned) pattern of cells. Two sets of criteria are used by the system in this assignment process: optimum projection distortion tolerance for balance between plane and ellipsoid geometry calculations, and optimum cell population size for data retrieval efficiency.
User assigned, orderly cell pattern. Optimization decisions mentioned above will in this case have to be made a priori and will remain frozen in a given implementation.
A discussion of discrepancies between a digital model using an ellipsoid of rotation as a reference surface and the true location of the objects on the surface of the Earth is out of the scope of this paper. We will only make the assumption (valid for any large and complex civil engineering system) that the derived spatial values, based on rigid ellipsoid geometry solutions, satisfy the precision reqiurements of all of the database geometronical application disciplines.
Ellipsoid geometry has been a subject of intensive study with the purpose of finding ways to simplify manual calculations by accepting assumptions and derivation procedures yielding only the minimum of required accuracy. It is safe to say that practical considerations driving this research have been transformed considerably with the introduction of automatic computing devices. The benefit derived by reducing the number of elementary arithmetic operations has decreased substantially, while the cost of increase in calculational accuracy is no longer proportional (or extraproportional) to the number of significant digits carried - it is increasing in discrete, computing device dependent, steps. Since the loss of accuracy almost always increases with the "size" of the problem (e.g. length of intersecting lines), different classical solutions are indicated depending on some external, individual problem (data!) dependent criteria. Such a decision requires insight difficult to replicate in a computerised procedure. For this, "self-adjusting" algorithms are necessary, capable of producing maximum accuracy that can be delivered by the internal numerical resolution, yet simple and efficient when only short lines are involved. Iterative algorithms, (as opposed to expansions to required accuracy) are usually best capable of achieving this quality.
The methodology employed for construction of these iterative ellipsoid geometry algorithms is illustrated by example - a solution of an ellipsoid intersection problem: given are two points (P1, P2), with known positions; and their respective tangential plane azimuths to a third point (Pn, point of intersection). Ellipsoid coordinates of the Pn are to be determined. A few terms will be defined to simplify the description of the procedure:
The procedure will first check for valid intersection data. Two conditions must be satisfied: first, intersection planes must not be parallel or coincident, and second, first of the two intersection points reached by moving along the intersection ellipse in the direction of the azimuth starting at each given point must be the same. Checking those conditions is simplified by the fact that an azimuth is internally kept as two direction cosines in its respective tangential plane, which is in turn stated by the ellipsoid coordinates (normal!) of a given point. Both intersection plane normal equation coefficients can be found by a simple rotation of the line of sight vectors and their free terms, by using given point coordinates.
The equations of two intersecting planes and of the ellipsoid of rotation form a system whose roots are the cartesian coordinates of the two points of intersection. The solution is possible by any number of numerical methods, and transforming the result to the ellipsoid normal form presents no problem. Even simpler, more direct solution is possible, by finding an approximate normal through Pn, and iterating its components using the meridian ellipse productions until ellipsoid geometry is satisfied, observing in the process intersection conditions as well as the elevation of Pn. The iteration steps are as follows:
Obtain the intersection line in a normalized parametric equation form and find the intersection line para-centre coordinates.
Assume the normal to be collinear with the intersection line, and find the normal para-radius using meridian ellipse geometry productions.
Set the initial intersection line parameter equal to the para-radius obtained in the previous step. (Intersection point elevation can be taken into account in this and all subsequent steps involving para-radius.)
Start next iteration step by finding a new position of the intersection point using the intersection line para-centre and parametric equations.
Recalculate normal components using the provisional coordinates of the intersection point. Check for change since the previous step and exit if none.
Use normal direction cosines to find new normal para-radius. Compare it with previous step and update the intersection line para-radius by a corresponding amount. Repeat from step (4).
Note that the meridian ellipse productions employed are closed, and the precision depends only on the criterion used in step (5). The iteration is so fast, even on lines only one order of magnitude below the ellipsoid semi-axes, that a "fuzziness threshold" of the floating point representation can be used as this criterion.
The most common method of describing the location on (or slightly above or below) the ellipsoid surface is a numerical description of a direction of a normal through the location point. This can be done by specifying angular values relative to the equator and reference meridian plane (latitude and longitude), or using a vector component (direction cosine) form. The main advantage of the traditional form is its direct correspondence to navigational and similar observations, but it is extremly ill-suited for computerised calculations. With an angular value as a source item, most geometry calculations will require expensive, multiple evaluation of trigonometric functions. If direction cosines are used, this will not be the case, and the formulae of ellipsoid geometry will become symmetrical and much easier for programming. In addition, any numerical collapse will be directly related to the definition of the problem, and never to the method used. With 64 bit floating point arithmetic and data variables, a comfortable margin of several orders of magnitude can be maintained over the precision of any field measurements. While one more element must be kept for direction cosines (three plus elevation, versus 2+1 for latitude and longitude) this provides a simple check for a valid normal element data: if the vector is normalized after each manipulation, the sum of the squares of the components will equal one. The most important consideration remains the type of calculational algorithms utilized: conventional ellipsoid geometry derivations typically employ angular values and trigonometric functions, while direction cosines are used by closed iterative procedures and ellipsoid to plane geometric projection routines.
As mentioned before, plane coordinates used by the system may require frequent and high volume transformations to the ellipsoid and back. Problems associated with the transfer of positions from ellipsoid to the plane and vice versa can vary from trivial to fairly complex. This complexity depends on a number of factors: the definition of the mapping function; the format in which the location is given for both ellipsoid and plane systems; the precision to be maintained in a single transfer; and the acceptable numerical deterioration in a case of multiple transfers.
The mapping selected for this global (ellipsoid) to cell (plane) coordinate transformation can best be described as an ellipsoid distortion of a spherical stereographic perspective projection. It provides extremely fast and and precise (including multiple transfer) mapping algorithms. Given the population related restrictions on the cell size, projection distortions are likely to be negligible for all local geometry problems. Ellipsoid coordinates of the cell centre point are at the same time coefficients of a normal form of the projection plane equation. In order to avoid the necessity of the "sea level" reduction of the field measured distances, the average elevation of the terrain covered by the cell can be incorporated into the free term of the projection plane equation. The projection centre is located on the centre-point normal, at twice the depth below the surface of the ellipsoid of the geometric mean of the radii of curvature along the meridian and prime vertical.
Ellipsoid coordinates of the centre -point, in addition to the elevation (if used as described above), are the only values required as the cell dependent projection parameters. Depending on the relative efficiency of data retrieval versus recalculation, and whether most transformations are performed individually or in a series, coordinates of the projection centre, para-radius of the projection centre normal and the free term of the centre-point prime vertical equation can be calculated when a cell is generated, and re-used in all ellipsoid to plane and reverse transformations involving the cell.
A scaling effect takes place in ellipsoid to plane transformations: ceteris paribus, fewer digits are required to describe the location than if the ellipsoid coordinates are used. Specifically, if cell diameters are in the order of up to ten kilometers, a 32 bit floating point representation will be in the order of millimeters. While somewhat below the precision of the 64 bit ellipsoid coordinates, discrepancies will not propagate across the cell boundaries. This is an important consideration for implementations on systems with a significant difference in efficiency between "short" and "long" floating point arithmetic.
UTM coordinates are, because of their widespread use and regulatory support, frequently used for interchange of location data. Unfortunately, several properties make them particularly unsuitable for computer system usage (most of the following comments would apply to all large coverage plane survey coordinate systems):
Because of the high maximum distortion, only the most crude geometry processing can be performed using simple plane coordinate manipulations.
Large systems will likely extend over more than one UTM zone. If that happens, the advantage of a single, continuous set of coordinates is lost. Transformation function domain is not global.
"Long" floating point is normally required to store and manipulate coordinates. This is a special disadvantage where multiple coordinates are required to describe an entity.
The transfer of coordinates between the UTM plane and ellipsoid is a rather involved and inefficient calculation due to the numerical nature of mapping algorithms (Taylor's expansion of Cauchy-Riemann differential equations). Most of the advantages of a conformal projection are lost when field measurements consist of a balanced set of directions and distances.
To provide the ability for external data interchange, the system must include a set of transformation routines, guarantying sub-millimiter precision even on the edges of a 6 degree zone in mid-latitudes. UTM coordinates presented to the system are immediately transformed into ellipsoid format. If an output request is made for numerical UTM coordinates, reverse transformation takes place. Direct orthogonal transformation of cell coordinates into UTM grid of the output page is used for plotting, as it is well within the resolution of even large scale plots.
KP/offset is an often used method of describing the location on any "linear" engineering system. Cumulative distance and offset values are relative to a convenient reference line, usually centre line or R-O-W boundary line. Distances are sometimes accumulated and marked in the field ("original" KP) as the line is surveyed. There are ;/oe problems inherent with the KP/offset usage: the most significant resulting from the fact that whatever is selected as the reference line, it can, and probably will, change its length in the design and the construction phases of the project. Updating these values presents no problem, but references to "original" field values can become invalid or ambiguous.
All cells that cover the reference line contain an ordered, doubly linked list of points representing a section of the reference line within the cell. Each item in the list contains point identification, cell coordinates, and original, field KP label. Each cell also contains true KP values at its boundary. Mapping from cell coordinates to KP/offset system is defined as an orthogonal projection to the closest reference line segment. List of local coordinates of the reference line segments can therefore be considered as a set of "mapping parameters" for cell to KP/offset and reverse transformations in the same manner as the coordinates of the centre-point are for cell to global transformation. Inquiry references using "original" values only are resolved by a bi-directionl search along the line, from a point with the same "true" KP, until a segment with appropriate "original" KP range is found.
The Alaska Highway Gas Pipeline Project is a natural gas transportation system designed for the primary purpose of transporting Alaskan natural gas from Prudhoe Bay on the North Slope of Alaska, south across western Canada, to markets in California and the mid-western United States.The Canadian portion of the project is comprised of 3285 km of pipeline. Due to the complexity of ambiance, primarily in the Yukon region of the AHGPP, large quantities of engineering, geotechnical, regulatory, biological, cadastral, pipeline design and other site-specific information had to be assembled and continuously referred to in the process of designing the pipeline. A computerised database system was implemented to provide a repository for the most volatile and widely required sub-set of that information.
The system was implemented on a large corporate multiple mainframe computer complex, IBM 360/370 architecture, with buffered character CRT display terminals, remote (batch) printers, and an electrostatic plotter at the central location. Implementation of the system on a dedicated CAD computer was considered, but two problems made mainframe implementation more attractive: capital cost associated with the acquisition of dedicated hardware, and inability of existing CAD systems to cost effectively serve large number of simultaneous users, including those at remote locations. On-line mainframe access from remote locations was provided via CTR TTY terminals, 1200 baud dial-up modems and an async/SNA hardware protocol converter. The same lines could be used with portable hardcopy terminals to retrieve batch generated reports. Plot output was available only at the central site.
Further development, if and when initiated, will be based on a remote microcomputer. All graphical output would be generated on the workstation, and data maintenance for items other than global geometry would be done there. Mainframe functions would be reduced to the database retention and block update control processing, probably on a cell/discipline/user oriented authorization scheme.
The system is implemented using ADABAS database management system. It is a multiple inverted file system, intended primarily for implementation of administrative and commercial systems. Like most similar products, it suffers from one serious impediment when used for comprehensive financial or engineering models: inability to deal with the floating point numeric data items. The problem was solved either by storing the value in fixed decimal format or by storing a floating point value as a character (byte) variable, and leave it's manipulation to an external programme. There was one more reason for storing cell coordinates in the decimal format. One of the ADABAS support software components is a dedicated on-line interpreter and compiler. While the language was particularly ill-suited for any kind of list processing or modelling programming (poor data structure handling capabilities, no workspace management functions, etc.) it provided very effective data retrieval and index maintenance functions, and was therefore used for all on-line database interaction programmes. All geometry required for data retrieval and proximity solutions could therefore be handled without incurring the overhead of run-time external module invocation.
Since the system must operate in a multiple project environment, a project identifier is appended to each record on file and all location processing is normally carried out only within the project. Alignment sheets are an already established way of location partitioning of the pipeline data, and their size (2x7 Km) provides an excellent compromise between total number of cells on the system and individual cell population size. Data is further identified by cell coordinates (multiple in case of line or area items), and KP point or range. Some of these items are incorporated in the database index structures. Programmes are available to process location descriptors upon entry of an item to the database, manipulate data in the process of pipeline design where locations are changed, or retrieve data through on-line interactions or printed or plotted hardcopy output.
Each record representing a location specific entity on the database contains the following data items:
In addition, some records include parameter values which are used by programmes whenever location data is manipulated:
Project record:
Cell (Alignment sheet) record:
Reference line point record:
Three inverted lists (indexes) comprising location description data are maintained on the system. Arguments of these lists are concatenated location description items, as follows:
Cell index:
Start KP index:
End KP index:
The last index structure contains only linear and area items which occur as contiguous segments along the line. It makes possible bi-directional traversing of item records. Unlike the neighbouring cell pointer list in the cell record, this index structure is maintained automatically by the inverted list update mechanism. (The conceptual design of both the pipeline database and the location reference components remained independent of the particular package, and any multiple index data access method or file management system could have been used with similar effectiveness.)
The main programming component of the location reference system is a library of PL1 subroutines, performing elementary tasks, usually on single problem data (e.g. conversion of coordinates between ellipsoid and UTM, ellipsoid and cell, and cell and KP/offset systems; closed iterative solutions of common ellipsoid geometry propositions; planar geometry problems and transformations and data conversions).
Plotting is implemented by batch executing database traverse programmes, which produce a high level, device independent flat plot files. These are subsequently reprocessed by a graphical post-processor generating electrostatic plotter output. At this point, one of the two types of files containing cell transformation parameters is used. The first contains a copy of cell centre points, and provides the ability to transform cell coordinates on plot file to a UTM defined output page. Second contains cell sets of reference line points and their page coordinates digitized from alignment sheets based (where these are used) on non-ortho mosaics. In this case, a separate orthogonal transformation will be calculated for each reference line segment, and used for all items in its KP range.
The first step in establishing new project data is entry of skeleton cell records and location of reference line points. Cumulative distances along the reference line and cell projection parameters are next calculated, and stored on the database. Any other project data can now be entered, described by location either using external mapping system, KP/offset references or definition of proximity geometry relative to items already on the system. As each item is entered, inverted lists are maintained automatically by the database mechanism, making the item instantly part of inquiry traverses of project data. In case of a change of a reference line (pipeline re-routing) one or more cells are locked out from the active system, and updated positions of reference line stations are entered. Total population of the cell is then traversed, it's KP references re-calculated and updated. The rest of the project is then adjusted by adding or subtracting the required amount from all KP refernces down-stream from the revision area.
Major software components must be developed and integrated into generally available database packages if they are to be used with success for geo-based applications. Once this is achieved, significant benefits can be derived from implementation on a mainframe complex: simultaneous on-line service of an extensive user base; large data volume capability; economical remote access and capacity expansion and utilization of existing corporate capital investment and software engineering and construction skill base.
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---, 1982 rev., The Alaska Highway Gas Pipeline Project - Project Overview, Foothills Pipe Lines (Yukon) Ltd., Calgary